by Stahl RJ

Hematuria—Child

(Blood in the Urine—Child)

Definition

Hematuria means blood in the urine. Normally, urine does not contain any blood. There are two kinds of hematuria:
  • Microscopic hematuria—Urine contains a very small amount of blood. It cannot be seen with the naked eye.
  • Gross hematuria—Urine appears red or tea-colored.
The Urinary Tract
IMAGE
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

Causes

Hematuria can be caused by many conditions, such as:
  • Vigorous exercise
  • Injury to the abdomen, pelvis, or internal organs of the urinary tract
  • Conditions that affect the urinary tract, such as infection, vesicoureteral reflux , blockage or abnormalities, or tumors
  • Cancer of the kidney or bladder
  • Kidney disease
  • Kidney stones
  • Bleeding disorders, such as hemophilia
  • Certain congenital diseases, such as polycystic kidneys
  • Certain medications
Sometimes the exact cause is not found.

Risk Factors

Risk factors include:
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Recent upper respiratory tract infection
  • Family history of kidney problems
  • Injury or abuse
  • Medications, such as certain antibiotics or pain relievers
  • Radiation of the pelvis (for cancer treatment)

Symptoms

In some cases, there may be other symptoms with hematuria. These other symptoms will depend on the underlying condition that is causing the hematuria. For example, if a urinary tract infection is the cause, your child may have to urinate often. She may also have a burning feeling when she urinates.
Call your child's doctor if you see blood in the urine.

Diagnosis

The doctor will ask about your child’s symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
Tests to look for infections and signs of kidney trouble may include:
  • Urine tests—tests to confirm the presence of blood and look for protein, bacteria, or cancer cells in the urine
  • Blood tests—tests to check how well the kidneys are functioning and to look for conditions that cause hematuria
Your doctor may also need to look at the kidneys and urinary tract. Detailed pictures can be made with one or more of the following tests:
Other tests that may be done include:
  • Cystoscopy —to look at the lining of the bladder
  • Kidney biopsy (done in rare cases)—to remove a small sample of kidney tissue for testing

Treatment

Treatment will depend on the cause. Some causes do not require treatment. Other causes can be treated with medication. For example, a urinary tract infection is treated with antibiotics.
Surgery may be needed if the urinary tract is blocked.

Prevention

By treating the underlying condition, the doctor may be able to prevent your child from developing hematuria.

RESOURCES

FamilyDoctor.org—American Academy of Family Physicians http://www.familydoctor.org

National Kidney Foundation http://www.kidney.org

CANADIAN RESOURCES

BC Health Guide http://www.healthlinkbc.ca

The Kidney Foundation of Canada http://www.kidney.ca

References

Children’s Hospital Boston. Hematuria. Children’s Hospital Boston website. Available at: http://www.childrenshospital.org/az/Site1000/mainpageS1000P0.html. Accessed July 1, 2010.

Hematuria in children. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated June 17, 2010. Accessed March 8, 2012.

National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse. Hematuria (blood in the urine). National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse website. Available at: http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/hematuria/. Updated February 2007. Accessed July 1, 2010.

Shannon D. Hematuria. EBSCO Health Library website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/healthLibrary. Updated September 30, 2009. Accessed July 1, 2010.

Urination problems. American Academy of Family Physicians Family Doctor website. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/health-tools/search-by-symptom/urination-problems.html. Accessed March 8, 2012.

Revision Information

Health Library Search

Only show results from the selected categories.











2 Blood in Urine condition

Blood in the urine is also called hematuria. Normally, urine does not contain blood. There are two kinds of hematuria:...

Suprapubic cystostomy is a procedure to help drain the bladder (organ that collects and holds urine). A tube called a catheter, which leads out of the lower abdomen, is i...

Direct vision internal urethrotomy (DVIU) is a surgery to repair a narrowed section of the urethra. This is referred to as a stricture. The urethra is the tube through wh...

The urinary tract carries urine from the kidneys to the outside of the body. It includes the kidneys, bladder, and tubes that connect them. The tubes from the kidney to b...

17 Acute Cystitis condition

Acute cystitis is inflammation of the bladder. It is usually caused by an infection. There are two types are of acute cystitis:...

A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection in any part of the urinary system. Most UTIs start in the lower urinary tract in the bladder or urethra. The urethra is th...