by Cresse M

Aphasia-associated Anomia

(Anomia, Aphasia-associated; Nominal Aphasia; Anomic Aphasia; Difficulty Naming Objects and People)

Definition

Aphasia occurs when a person loses the ability to communicate in words. Anomia is a problem naming objects. When you have aphasia-associated anomia, it is difficult to name people and things. Aphasia-associated anomia can be treated.
Stroke—Most Common Cause of Aphasia
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Causes

Anomia is caused by injury to the language areas of the brain. Examples of injury to the brain are:

Risk Factors

Factors that increase your chances of developing aphasia-associated anomia include:
  • Being at risk for stroke or dementia
  • Having a history of transient ischemic attacks (TIAs)
  • Increased age—more common in older people

Symptoms

Tell your doctor if you have difficulty finding the right word when speaking and writing. For example, instead of using an exact word, you may use ambiguous or roundabout speech, such as:
  • Using general descriptions instead of specifics: “that place where you sleep” for “bedroom”
  • Saying what a thing does, but not what it is: “that thing you drive” for “car”
In most cases, you can understand speech and read.

Diagnosis

Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. A neurological examination may also be done to check brain function.
Images may be taken of structures inside your head. This can be done with:
  • CT scan—a type of x-ray that uses a computer to make pictures of structures inside the head
  • MRI scan—a test that uses magnetic waves to make pictures of structures inside the head
Other exams may include:
  • Exam of muscles used in speech
  • Tests to assess language skills—for example, identifying objects, defining words, and writing
In some situations, your brain activity may be need to be measured. This can be done with an electroencephalogram (EEG).
You may be referred to a neurologist. This is a doctor who specializes in diseases of the nervous system.

Treatment

Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment options include the following:

Speech-Language Therapy

The speech therapist will help you to:
  • Preserve the language skills you have
  • Try to restore those you have lost
  • Discover new ways of communicating
Therapy may occur one-on-one or in a group. Activities may include:
  • Using flash cards with pictures and words to help you name objects
  • Repeating words back to the therapist
  • Working with computer programs designed to improve speech, hearing, reading, and writing

Family Care and Counseling

You will learn how to apply the lessons learned in speech therapy to your life. Counseling can help you to adjust to returning home. It can also help your family learn ways to better communicate with you.

Prevention

Since stroke is a common cause of aphasia, follow these guidelines to help prevent stroke:

RESOURCES

National Aphasia Association http://www.aphasia.org

National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders http://www.nidcd.nih.gov

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke http://www.ninds.nih.gov

CANADIAN RESOURCES

The Aphasia Institute http://www.aphasia.ca

Brain Injury Association of Alberta http://www.biaa.ca

Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada http://ww2.heartandstroke.ca

References

Aphasia. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association website. Available at: http://www.asha.org/public/speech/disorders/Aphasia.htm. Accessed May 17, 2013.

Aphasia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php. Updated September 2, 2012. Accessed May 17, 2013.

Aphasia. National Institute on Deafness and Other Communicative Disorders website. Available at: http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/voice/pages/aphasia.aspx. Updated October 2008. Accessed May 17, 2013.

Kirshner HS. Aphasia and aphasic syndromes. In: Bradley WG, Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, eds. Neurology in Clinical Practice. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Butterworth Heniemann Elsevier; 2008: 141-160.

More aphasia facts. The National Aphasia Association website. Available at: http://www.aphasia.org/Aphasia%20Facts/aphasia%5Ffacts.html. Accessed May 17, 2013.

Stedman TL. Stedman’s Medical Dictionary. 28th ed. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005: 117; B9; B13; 1849-1850.

Winn P, ed. Dictionary of Biological Psychology. London, England: Routledge; 2001: 95-96.

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