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Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) occurs just prior to menstruation and is characterized by significant:
The exact cause is not known.
Factors that may increase your chance of PMDD include:
- Hormonal changes
- Family history of PMDD
- Extra stress or a traumatic life event
or another mental health condition
|Microscopic View of Hormone Receptor
|Menstruation causes many hormonal changes, which may play a role in PMDD.
|Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.
PMDD may cause:
- Extreme sadness
- Frequent crying
- Unusually strong cravings for certain foods
- Difficulty concentrating or paying attention
- Panic attacks
- Mood swings
- Fatigue or lack of energy
- Physical symptoms, such as sore breasts, headaches, joint or muscle pain, swelling, or bloating
Symptoms typically begin 10-14 days prior to the start of menstruation.
Your doctor will diagnose PMDD based on your symptoms. You may be asked to keep a record of when your symptoms occur and how severe they are.
Your doctor may also order:
- Blood tests
- Tests to check hormone levels
Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment options include:
These steps can help manage symptoms of PMDD:
- Exercise throughout the week.
- Get plenty of rest.
- Eat a balanced diet with plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
- Avoid alcohol, tobacco, and caffeine.
- Learn stress management techniques.
- Improve your sleep habits.
PMDD may be treated with:
- Oral contraceptives
- Nutritional supplements
To help reduce your chance of PMDD, take these steps:
- Get plenty of exercise and rest
- Eat a well-balanced diet
- Manage stress
American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
Office on Women's Health
The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada
PMS and PMDD. MGH Center for Women's Health website. Available at:
http://womensmentalhealth.org/specialty-clinics/pms-and-pmdd. Accessed September 25, 2014.
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). American Academy of Family Physicians Family Doctor website.
http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/premenstrual-dysphoric-disorder.html. Updated April 2014. Accessed September 25, 2014.
Premenstrual syndrome. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated July 8, 2014. Accessed September 25, 2014.