Diabetes insipidus is a condition where water in the body is improperly removed from the circulatory system by the kidneys.
There are two forms of diabetes insipidus (DI):
- Central diabetes insipidus (central DI)
- Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI)
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) controls the amount of water reabsorbed by the kidneys. ADH is made in the hypothalamus of the brain. The pituitary gland, at the base of the brain, stores and releases ADH.
Central DI occurs when the hypothalamus does not make enough ADH.
NDI occurs when the kidneys do not respond to ADH.
Some diabetes insipidus is caused by genetic problems that lead to central DI or NDI. Others may develop after an injury or illness.
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Factors that may increase your risk of diabetes insipidus include:
Damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary glands due to surgery, infection,
Certain conditions such as
, and granulomatosis with polyangiitis
- Certain medicines such as lithium—the most common cause of diabetes insipidus
Kidney disease such as
polycystic kidney disease
- Protein malnutrition
- Certain conditions such as hypercalcemia and hypokalemia
Symptoms may include:
- Increased urination, especially during the night
- Extreme thirst
—fast heart rate, dry skin and mouth
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam may be done.
Your bodily fluids may be tested. This can be done with:
Water deprivation test
Images may be taken of your bodily structures. This can be done with an MRI scan
Talk with your doctor about the best plan for you. Your doctor will work with you to address the underlying cause.
Treatment may include:
- For central DI—taking a synthetic form of ADH
- For NDI—following a low-sodium diet, drinking plenty of water, taking a diuretic (water pill)
There are no known ways to prevent diabetes insipidus. Talk to the doctor right away if you have excessive urination or thirst.
American Diabetes Association
Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus Foundation
Canadian Diabetes Association
Central diabetes insipidus. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated January 13, 2014. Accessed September 18, 2014.
Garofeanu CG, Weir M, et al. Causes of reversible nephrogenic diabetes insipidus: a systematic review.
Am J Kidney Dis. 2005;45:626-637.
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Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated November 20, 2013. Accessed September 18, 2014.
Patient information publications: diabetes insipidus. NIH Clinical Center website. Available at:
http://www.cc.nih.gov/ccc/patient%5Feducation/pepubs/di.pdf. Published 2006. Accessed September 18, 2014.
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J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2007;20:459-469.
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